Definition of hinges
There are Over 100 different models to meet specific needs, a wide variety of materials ranging from plastic to durable economic steel, concrete developments to save time and money, effectiveness and design in one piece. In this space we present history, general, types, advantages and developments of this important element: the hinge.
If asked about the definition of hinge, one can say that is a set of mostly pieces of metal or plastic in some cases, contact with one another, which has the function to facilitate the turning movement of a door or movable panel.
This explanation may be added that there is a fairly large number of materials used in their manufacture, and that to classify them into more generalized groups are divided into 2 segments: metal and plastic, but also within these categories there is an infinity of derivatives.
You could also say that the hinge is a piece almost invisible, because the numerous changes in industrial achievements over time have resulted in models that are known by this name: invisible, given their maximum "discretion". Still, with such modifications as the hinge has undergone continues to play a role in the productive activity of the furniture manufacturer and the quality of service to the user.
A little bit of history of hinges
It is known that since ancient materials used for joining the cabinet doors ranging from leather to textile fiber, then switched to metal and finally to plastic, the first being the most widely accepted today for reasons of length, design and an infinite variety of applications.
Early versions of metal fittings were quite simple, it consisted of wires attached to each other to facilitate joint, then the hinges were developed based on two metal plates connected by a pivot also metallic, called Barrel Hinge type, which were introduced in the fifteenth century. These were made of wrought iron, malleable and good durability, the only drawback was its poor corrosion resistance.
With the development of technology and furniture due to the need to produce a more accurate hinge and good looks for fine furniture, we decided to use brass or bronze, because of their flexibility compared to iron. Later he developed different models such as "H", "T" and the famous "Butterfly" and they were fixed to the cabinet with nails, screws then appear only in the early eighteenth century.
Types of hinges
The great family of the hinges can have different ranges of classification, good for his application for thick doors (glass, etc), or for his function according to angle of opening, forms of adjustment and installation.
Thus, we find first that there are 3 types of application, the first called full coverage, overlap or patch installation, where the door cover much or all of the side of the cabinet with minimum leakage, the need to open the door to comfortably . The dimensions may vary depending on the brand.
In the second, medium coverage, assembly or overlapped with semiparche central panel, two doors are mounted on each central panel of the cabinet and the door only covers half the panel and the total leakage is necessary.
The last type is the assembly embedded application or lashed in which the door is mounted flush with the cabinet, in other words, the level of the panels forming the cabinet.
It is important to note that the invisible hinge is the current leader in woodworking markets, compared tothe barrel type, since the latter only provides the user with a function: opening and closing the door, while the former allows multiple settings and facilities safer.
The invisible hinge, usually brings an additional component which functions as a base and varying in design and height (increasing or decreasing) to influence the type of coverage the door. For example, with a complete coverage hinge can be used a base of 8 mm for an internal or embedded application.
As part of the second type we find the ways of adjustment. The hinges today present three-dimensional types or in other words, integrated systems on the hinge itself. These settings offer advantages to the extent that supply corrections facilities and door assemblies.
The three-dimensional adjustment of the hinges, they offer great advantages such as speed of installation, stability and security offered by manufacturers; important because it shows the buyer or user, the manufacturer's reliability and professionalism in the functionality of your product.
As to the installation, third place qualifier, we can cite the screws and the manual to automatic, using machinery, or we can say that there are different types of connection of the hinge arm to the base or bowl. Let's cite some well-known: the system slide (Slide-on) and hook (snap-on).
The hinges are designed not only to fulfill the basic function of allowing the opening or closing the doors. Design and manufacturing are areas that relate the practical and the aesthetic in order to offer constructive solutions to any customer need.
In the quest to facilitate the installation of hardware, it was good to develop a type of hinge that requires no tools for assembly and is known as Twin, butterfly, Fix or Clip. With its use saves time in assembly of parts, reducing the number of men for the same action and represents a considerable saving of money, estimated at installation time or export furniture can have a significant effect. For example, is ideal for RTA furniture for the end user can install their doors without using a screwdriver.
In the cabinet manufacturing industry there are two very common types, with frame and without frame, for which there are hinges designed for these applications, however additional accessories can be found useful by installing special hinges that do not fit with the type of frame.
How to select the proper hinge
- For the furniture manufacturer can determine the type of hinge to use, it is very important to consider the following points:
* Economic Factor: There are different types of hinges but the cost varies according to the design, material and complexity.
* Aesthetic Factor: How visible is the hinge want. (embedded, full and half coverage) and the type of installation (for screws or dowels).
* Opening Angle: How many degrees you need to open the gate and drain desired.
* Location: According to design a site is suitable to locate the hinge. It is not a capricious matter.
* Distance based drilling from the door edge to the center of the diameter of the cup or bowl of the base. (For hinge invisible).
* Type of door or cabinet access.
It is also important to look into these aspects, the thickness of material, because this information also determines the type of hinge base to be used and the limit of drilling for the installation concerned.
Similarly, data such as width, height, weight and quality of material of the door are determining factors when choosing the hardware and set the required number of hinges. The factors that arise in practice are different depending on the case and the number of hardware only guides for installation.
Mounting the hinges to a considerable distance between them provides stability to the door. (Guide values for the plates of chipboard 19 mm thick density of 750 kg/m3)
Once these critical points have been determined, you can review the variety of designs offered by the market, and materials (steel, zinc, bronze, brass and others), life conditions and other benefits that different types of hinges you can offer.
There are currently hinges for all types of furniture for offices, kitchen, bathroom, modular, and so on. The offering of these fittings reaches a number of references that basically vary the opening angle of the hardware, (easily found in a single manufacturing company more than 100 models, with levels from 40 to 180 degrees). This point determines its performance in the furniture and incidentally, the service to meet according to customer needs.
Thus, we find different types of hardware such as flat hinge, which usually made in bronze, brass and zamac offers applications ranging from the manufacture of chests and cabinets to the gateways in metal or wood. These reach the 180 degrees opening and square or rectangular can reach 3 meters long, the smallest being 10 mm. It is installed with screws and finished within are gold, nickel and chromium.
For the flat oval or round type of hinge, at the time of its installation is necessary to have a box that range between 1.3 mm to the l3 depending on the hinge, then fixed with screws. Zamac are made regularly, plastic and brass, in sizes ranging from 32.5 to 37.5 mm and with an opening angle of 90 °. It is commonly found in Victrola type doors .
This type can be fixed with screws, dowels or with pressure on twin or assembly systems faster. The base of the hinge is fixed with screws to the cabinet wall and the hinge is attached to the base by sliding or inserting system to Clip system pressure, although the latest designs dispense with the base.
The finished self-closing hinge is nickel and opening angles are 95, 105, 130, 155 and 170 degrees, depending on the size of the hinge, you have 3 types of applications: Patch, semiparche or embedded. They are used in wide range of furniture such as kitchen, bathrooms, libraries, etc..
Self-closing hinge has a large acceptance , showing substantial differences compared to other market for materials, installation and implementation. They are produced in cold rolled steel and mixed zamac, and is available in sizes 26, 35 and 40 mm (depending on thickness of the door), proportion refers to the diameter of the cup. The depth of the pot can vary from 10 to 13 millimeters.
The self-closing hinge, used in furniture which avoids the sound of the door to close, it also presents the same type of application, use, materials, sizes, finishes and angles quoted in the previous case.
The "institutional hinge", manufactured in zamac and an opening angle of 270 degrees. According to their size and installation are in the market for 2 to 4 inches in rectangular form to attach with screws, the arm must have a box of 35 mm and is installed as self-closing hinges. You are finished in black and silver and special designs are used where the furniture stays with its doors open but not hindering the user.
In glass door hinges, sizes can vary according to style and thickness of glass and is handled normally ranging between 4 and 6 mm, are also self-closing hinges of 26 mm and large choice of finishes: bluing (pivot), nickel, chrome, gold.
To install the hinge pin, a hole is machined up and down the gavinete adjusting the glass with a plastic screw. In the case of self-closing hinges are set like wood, drilled as in glass. They are manufactured in zamac and cold rolled sheet and opening angles are 95 ° and 180 °. There is another type of hinge which has one important advantage: no need to pierce the glass.
The hinges for doors with aluminum frames have a size similar to the self-closing hinge (26 mm pot) and are installed like any self-closing hinge, only that slot aluminum frame in the shape of the head of the hinge. It has plated finish, with an opening angle of 95 ° and is usually used in kitchen cabinets above.
Finally we have the invisible hinge that comes in different shapes and sizes, cylindrical from 5 to 18 and 24 mm and rectangular, from 4 inches to 18 with fins of different widths. Its opening angle is 180 ° and are available in bronze, steel and plastic.
Wood working plans and hinge installation
Remember that entrance doors may need a piano door hinge, which takes the whole length of the door. When talking about wooden hinges for the folding screen, it is usual that you need to build this type of hinge for the door of a furniture. You will need to cut into the framework every inch you need for the type of door hinge you bought. Choose the length as for letting the folding screen pivot easily. You will not currently need any fisher plug for the wood, as normally the briquet has great compliance for this kind of material –unless the door you are building is really big. You will then only have to drill the wood for using ordinarily two holes, which will be enough for any kitchen furniture.
In case you are planning to create two doors, make sure that the level of both pieces are the same, for which you will need to fix the screws in the wood with great precision. Be sure that the grain of the wood runs paralell to the legth of the piece in order to streghten it.
To install a box is required on the edges of the door and movable panel, in order to make the flap hinge, then fixed with screws or pressure in the case of cylinder hinges. The application of this type of hinges usually occurs in fine carpentry doors, cabinets or doors.
What to do:
* Use all the holes in the bases.
* Install the hinges that go to the top and bottom of the door as close as possible to the top and bottom of the door respectively, the maximum recommended distance is 75mm (3 ")
* Ensure that the arm of the hinge is at a 90 ° position of the door.
* Verify that the door does not rub with the panel or cabinet.
* It is always very advisable to make a test installation before final installation.
* As a general recommendation, it is very important to consider all the benefits gained hinge type offers, there are prices for every taste but mostly the quality and security are very important criteria in purchasing the product
What not to do:
* Do not exceed the maximum range of drilling for the bowl, as this will cause friction between the door and the hinge.
* Do not abuse the use of adjustments to the hinges.
* Do not add mirrors or other components to the door already installed. Do not adjust the screws more than necessary.
* Changing the hinge mark, be aware that drilling parameters vary from one to another. Do not use the same measure.
* Do not add supplements like pieces of wood to get a different coverage for which is not designed hinge.